Are Microphones Input or Output Devices?

Wondering are microphones input or output devices? Wonder no more! This article clears up the confusion once and for all.

by Derrick Reeves | Updated: April 14, 2022

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Whether you're a musician, podcaster, or just like to record yourself singing, you've probably used a microphone at some point. They come in all shapes and sizes, and can be used for a variety of different purposes. But despite their ubiquity, there is still a lot of confusion about how they work.

Are microphones input or output devices? Microphones are input devices. That means they take sound waves and convert them into electrical signals. These signals can then be amplified and recorded. But microphones with built-in amps can also be used as output devices, sending signals directly to speakers or headphones.

I know it's a little confusing, but don't worry! We'll break it down. In this blog post, we'll clear up some of the confusion and take a closer look at these essential pieces of audio equipment.

What are Input and Output Devices?

In order to understand whether microphones are input or output devices, we need to first understand what input and output devices are.

Input devices are devices that send information to a computer. That information can be in the form of text, images, audio, or video.

Input devices can be classified according to the modality of input they support. For example, a keyboard is an alphanumeric input device, while a touchscreen is a direct manipulation input device.

Other common input devices include mice, trackballs, joysticks, and gamepads. More specialized input devices include microphones, touchpads, and scanners.

In general, input devices are designed to allow humans to interact with computers in a natural way. For example, keyboards and mice allow users to enter text and navigate menus in a familiar way. Touchscreens provide a more direct way of interacting with information on a computer.

Ultimately, the goal of input devices is to make it easier for humans to interact with computers.

Are Microphones Input or Output Devices?

Output devices are devices that receive information from a computer. This information can also be in the form of text, images, audio, or video.

There are a wide variety of output devices available for use with computers. The most common type of output device is a monitor, which displays text and images.

Other output devices include printers, which print text and images onto paper; speakers, which play audio; and projectors, which display images onto a screen or wall.

Output devices can be used to create a permanent record of information, such as a printed document, or to provide information in real-time, such as a video projection.

Additionally, some output devices, such as headphones or earbuds, can be used to privately view or listen to information without disturbing others.

By carefully selecting the right output device for the task at hand, users can maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of their computer usage.

So now that we know the difference between input and output devices, let's take a closer look at microphones.

Why Are Microphones Considered Input Devices?

Microphones create an analog audio signal (a voltage) that needs to be converted into digital data before it can be used on a computer. That means, by our definition of what makes up an "input device", microphones must convert their signal first before it can truly act as one!

The conversion from analog to digital signal of a microphone can happen in two ways.

The first, and most common, is that the microphone has an internal Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). This chip converts the analog signal into a digital one that can be read by the computer. An example for this is the digital microphone (USB microphone) which have an ADC chip right next to the capsule. This type of microphone is often used with computers, as it can be directly connected to a USB port.

The second way is to use an external ADC. In this case, the microphone sends its analog signal to an external box that contains the ADC. The digital signal is then sent from the box to the computer. The external box are called audio interfaces and they come in all shapes and sizes. The most common ones for home studios are the Scarlett 2i2, M-Audio M-Track, and the Zoom H4n.

The external box are called audio interfaces

This method has the advantage of being more flexible, as you can use different types of XLR cables (USB cables won't work) to connect the microphone to the box.

However, it is important to note that not all XLR cables are compatible with all types of microphones. Therefore, it is important to check the specifications of your particular ADC before making a purchase.

Then, to connect with the computer for editing and recoring, you will need some kind of software that allows you to record the signal from the audio interface. The most popular one is Audacity, which is a free program that works on both Mac and PC.

Typically, professional microphones use external ADCs, while less expensive consumer microphones use internal ones.

Internal ADCs are often less expensive and they make the microphone itself smaller and more portable. However, they can also introduce electrical interference and add noise to the signal. External ADCs, on the other hand, are typically more expensive but they offer a higher-quality signal with less noise.

It's important to keep in mind that even a good ADC won't make a poor-quality microphone sound good. So, if you're looking for the best microphone for recording vocals, make sure to do your research!

In either case, once the analog audio signal has been converted into a digital signal, it can be inputted into a computer as data. And because microphones take sound waves and turn them into a digital signal, they are considered input devices.

Can a device be input and output at the same time?

Yes! There are devices that can take input and output information at the same time. These are called I/O devices, or input/output devices.

One example of an I/O device is a printer. A printer can take data from a computer (input), and turn it into a printed document (output).

Another example of an I/O device is a scanner. A scanner can take a physical document (input), and turn it into a digital image (output).

Some I/O devices, such as USB hubs, can also act as intermediary devices. This means that they can take data from one input device, and send it to another output device.

For example, a USB hub could take data from a mouse (an input device), and send it to a printer (an output device).

Can a microphone be used as a Speaker?

Yes, a microphone can be used as a speaker! This is because microphones and speakers are both transducers. Transducers are devices that convert energy from one form to another.

Microphones convert acoustic energy (sound waves) into electrical energy (analog voltage), while speakers convert electrical energy into acoustic energy.

So, if you want to use the microphone as a speaker, you need to reverse the signal flow. The easiest way to do this is to use a converter with a speaker cable.

The converter will take the electrical signal from the microphone and convert it back into an acoustic signal. The speaker cable will then carry that signal to the speaker.

Can Speakers by used as a Microphone?

Yes, speakers can also be used as microphones! Just like with using a microphone as a speaker, you need to reverse the signal flow.

By wiring the speaker up so that the signal flow gets inverted, you can effectively turn it into a dynamic microphone. However, since speaker diaphragms are usually much bigger than the one on microphones, they will pick up a lot more low end and very little high end.

As a result, this type of makeshift microphone is not ideal for all applications. I'm not recommending you go out and buy a bunch of speakers to use as microphones, but it's good to know that it can be done in a pinch!

Step-by-step guide on how to use a speaker as a microphone:

1. Find an old speaker and a microphone cable.

2. Cut the microphone cable in half, so you have two separate wires.

3. Strip about a half-inch of the insulation off each wire, revealing the copper conductor inside.

4. twist the copper conductor of one wire around the positive terminal of the speaker, and do the same with the other wire and the negative terminal.

5. Connect the other end of the microphone cable to your computer's mic input jack.

6. Open up your sound recording software on your computer, and hit record!

You should now be able to hear your voice through the speaker!


Are headphones without microphones input or output devices? Headphones without microphones are considered output devices because they take a digital signal and convert it into an analog signal that can be heard by the user.

Are headphones with microphones input or output devices? Headphones with microphones are considered input/output devices because they can take an analog signal (from the microphone) and convert it into a digital signal, or take a digital signal and convert it into an analog signal (that can be heard by the user).

Can a microphone work without an amplifier? No, a microphone cannot work without an amplifier. The amplifier takes the very weak signal from the microphone and boosts it so that it can be used by the rest of the system.

Do all microphones need a power source? No, not all microphones need a power source. Some microphones, like condenser microphones, require power in order to function. This power is typically provided by a battery or an external power supply. Other types of microphones, like dynamic microphones, do not require power and can simply be plugged into the sound system.

Can a microphone be connected to an iPad? Yes, a microphone can be connected to an iPad! There are a few different ways to do this. One way is to use the Lightning to USB Camera Adapter. This adapter allows you to connect any USB device, like a microphone, to your iPad.

Another way to connect a microphone to your iPad is by using the Apple Lightning to 3.5mm Headphone Jack Adapter. This adapter allows you to connect any 3.5mm audio device, like a microphone, to your iPad.

Can a mic be connected directly to a speaker? This only work if it's an active speaker. Because a microphone will need preamp to convert the analog signal to digital. Passive speaker will need an amplifier to make sound.

Do ribbon mics need phantom power? No, ribbon microphones do not require phantom power. Ribbon microphones are typically low impedance microphones, which means that they do not require as much power to operate. However, some higher end ribbon microphones may require phantom power in order to function properly.

Do all microphones need a pop filter? No, not all microphones need a pop filter. Pop filters are typically used with dynamic microphones to help reduce the amount of popping and plosives in the audio. However, some dynamic microphones come with built-in pop filters that do not require an additional filter.


Microphones are input devices that take in sound waves and convert them into an electronic signal. This signal is then sent to a device that reproduces the sound, such as a speaker or headphones.

If you are looking to purchase a microphone, it is important to understand the difference so that you can make an informed decision. I hope this article has helped you better understand microphones and their functions. Thanks for reading!